Vascular Conditions

Also called aortic aneurysm, AAA


When the abdominal aorta – an essential blood vessel in abdomen that supplies blood to the legs

becomes weak, and shows an outward bulge and eventually like a balloon it is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The risk factors for these aneurysms is family medical history of AAA, old age, smoking, and long history of high blood pressure.

Also called Dissection, Ascending Aortic Dissection, Descending Aortic Dissection


The aorta is made of 3 layers. When there is a tear between the innermost and middle layers of the aorta – it’s called an aortic dissection. This separation could be asymptomatic or harmless at times but sometimes it could also result in decrease in blood flow to various organs and tissues like kidneys, liver, bowels and legs. If the tear compromises blood flow to the heart it could cause a heart attack or life-threatening internal bleeding.

Also called aortoiliac disease, aortic occlusion, iliac occlusion


When there is blockage of the aorta or the iliac arteries, (branches of the aorta around the belly button that provide blood to the legs and the organs in the pelvis) it’s an aortoiliac disease. This blockage is typically caused by a build-up of plaque within the walls of the blood vessels.

The aorta and iliac arteries are the second most common blood vessels to be affected by peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after the blood vessels in the thigh.

Also called arm arterial disease, arm claudication, steal syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, upper extremity arterial disease


It’s a circulatory disorder caused by narrowed blood vessels. It is an uncommon form of PAD (peripheral artery disease) often manifested by unequal Blood pressure on both upper limbs or can present with pain, ulcer or gangrene of hands.

Also called Arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries. Areas which can be affected are Cardiovascular Disease or Coronary Artery or Heart Disease

Peripheral Arterial Disease or PAD

Carotid Artery Disease, Cerebrovascular Disease

Renal Artery Disease

Mesenteric Artery Disease


The build-up of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances creates plaque inside the arteries

therefore, it starts hardening and narrowing (stenosis) and there is restriction or blockage created in blood flow.

Carotid arteries are the arteries found on each side of the neck, supplying blood to the brain from the heart. These arteries sometimes become narrow (carotid stenosis) due to build-up of plaque which is known as atherosclerosis i.e. build-up of fatty deposits along the innermost layer of the arteries.

Overtime, small clots can form, then break off and travel to the brain, causing a minor or major stroke. Risk grows higher with age, history of smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or heart disease

Also called Phlebitis, Post-Thrombotic Syndrome, Venous Insufficiency, Venous Leg Ulcer


CVI is usually caused due to impaired venous circulation in legs and causes leg pain or swelling. The valves in the varicose veins stop working properly causing impairment in the circulation of blood. This could happen due to:

  • Varicose veins (Which may not have a specific cause)
  • valve dysfunction which is usually hereditary
  • valve destruction after a deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • blood clot

CVI is more common in women (especially after multiple pregnancies) and in people who are middle aged or older. CVI could be treated with exercise and weight loss to prevent further complications.

Also called DVT, Deep Venous Thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis, Deep Vein Blood Clots


DVT occurs when there is clumping of blood leading to a solid clot. Some DVTs may cause no pain, whereas others can be quite painful. They are commonly treated with blood thinners. However, if a piece of the clot breaks off, it could travel to one of the lungs and make breathing difficult, or even cause death (Pulmonary embolism)

The lymph vessels are a third type of blood vessel that carries lymph fluid from the tissues and organs of the body back to the veins. When these lymph vessels are absent or are damaged or destroyed, there is an accumulation of lymph fluid in the soft tissues, mostly in the arms or legs causing severe swelling.

Lymphedema is usually a chronic condition. Untreated, it can lead to irreversible skin changes, frequent infections, reduced mobility of the affected limb and diminished quality of life.

Also called Mesenteric angina


It is the condition in which there is poor circulation in the vessels supplying blood flow to the mesenteric organs: stomach, liver, colon and intestine. This further causes blockages that could compromise the function of the mesenteric organs.

Varieties include Popliteal Aneurysm, Femoral Aneurysm, Splenic Aneurysm


These aneurysms develop in arteries other than the aorta – a weakening in the wall of a blood vessel. They are usually genetic, i.e. one is born with the tendency to form them.

Most peripheral aneurysms occur in the popliteal artery, which runs down the back of the thigh and knee. They can also form in the femoral artery in the groin, the carotid artery in the neck or occasionally in the arms.

Risk factors that contribute to atherosclerosis include: Family history of heart or vascular diseases, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity and smoking. Many of these risk factors can be reduced or eliminated by changing the lifestyle.

Also called PAD, peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD), peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)


Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is a disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, fibrous tissue, and other substances in the blood. PAD most commonly affects arteries in the legs. This build-up typically occurs gradually. If allowed to progress, blood flow in that artery can become limited or blocked all together. The difficulty in walking is called claudication. If it progresses further, it can lead to gangrene and need for limb amputation.

Also called Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Failure


The portal vein carries blood from your stomach, pancreas, and other digestive organs to your liver. The liver plays an important role in your circulation. It filters out toxins and other waste matter that the digestive organs have deposited in your bloodstream. When the blood pressure in the portal vein is too high, you have portal hypertension. The main cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis. This is a scarring of the liver. It can result from several conditions such as hepatitis (an inflammatory disease) or alcohol abuse. Portal hypertension lasts as long as the liver disease or another underlying condition exists.

Also called Blood clot in lungs

Pulmonary embolism is basically a blood clot that occurs  in the lungs. It can damage part of the lung due to restricted blood flow, decrease oxygen levels in the blood, and affect other organs as well. Because the clots block blood flow to the lungs, pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening. The signs and symptoms are caused by decreased lung function and the inability of the lung to provide adequate oxygen to the rest of the body. The condition can also cause less obvious symptoms including anxiety, cough and abdominal pain. This is the third most common cardiovascular disease after heart attack and stroke.

Also called Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), Mini-Stroke, Cerebrovascular Accident, Brain Attack

Sudden brain damage due to a blockage in the blood supply to the brain or rupture and bleed of a blood vessel in the brain is called Stroke. This is a medical emergency. Although many strokes are treatable, some can lead to disability or death.  People at risk for stroke include those who have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and those who smoke. The prognosis and recovery for a person that has suffered a stroke depends upon the location of the injury to the brain.

Also called Thoracic Aneurysm, Descending Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic Aortic Dissection

The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body. It delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta. Over time, the blood vessel balloons and is at risk for bursting (rupture) or separating (dissection). This can cause life threatening bleeding and potentially death. Sudden severe pain in jaw, neck, upper back, pain in chest can be associated with a thoracic aneurysm. It can also be a sign of a life-threatening medical emergency. Surgery is offered when the risk of rupture is greater than the risk of the operation.

Also called Thoracic Outlet Decompression, TOS, Paget-Schroetter Syndrome, Subclavian Artery Aneurysm, Brachial Plexus Nerve Compression, Scalene Anticus Syndrome, Cervical Rib, Subclavian Vein Thrombosis

Thoracic outlet is the ring formed by the top ribs, just below the collarbone. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) occurs when nerves or blood vessels are compressed by the rib, collarbone or neck muscles at the top of the outlet. Neurogenic TOS occurs when the nerves leading from the neck to the arm are compressed. Venous TOS occurs when a vein is compressed, leading to upper body thrombosis. Arterial TOS occurs when an artery is compressed. The signs and symptoms of TOS include neck, shoulder, and arm pain, numbness or impaired circulation to the affected areas.

Varicose veins are enlarged, twisted or tortuous veins. They can happen anywhere in the body, but are more common in the legs. Varicose veins are caused by weakened or damaged vein valves leading to increased blood pressure in the veins. Normally, the blood moves towards the heart by one-way valves in the veins but in varicose veins, there is reverse flow and hence blood can collect in the veins. This causes the veins to become enlarged. Sitting or standing for long periods can cause blood to pool in the leg veins, increasing the pressure within the veins.  Women, women who have had multiple children, and obese persons are at a higher risk.

Also called Graft Infection, Artery or Vein Infection, Sepsis

Vascular graft infection is a devastating and potentially life-threatening complication of vascular reconstructive surgery. The infection can occur early in the postoperative period and is largely due to spread from a nearby infection. Other factors commonly reported to predispose to vascular graft infection are periodontal disease (gum infections), nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, bacteraemia, diabetes mellitus and wound infection. If infected grafts are not removed, many of them will slowly decay and can break open, bleed excessively and potentially cause loss of a limb, or even death.

Also called Bleeding, Hemorrhage, Vascular Injury


Vascular trauma, or damage to a blood vessel, can happen to anyone. Often the result of an accident or injury, a vascular trauma can be mild, moderate, or severe. Some common symptoms of vascular trauma are bleeding, bruising, along with fractured bones. It can often lead to suddenly reduced blood supply to the limb and lead to gangrene if not treated early. Sometimes, small injuries involve a tear or puncture that causes blood loss or leads to formation of a pseudoaneurysm (ballooning of the vessel). This can sometimes occur after needle based vascular procedures ( angiography, angioplasty, vascular catheter insertions)